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Malignant cerebral edema

Malignant cerebral edema is most often associated with high-impact trauma. Patients who suffer from malignant cerebral edema are treated in a neurological ICU with powerful medications to try and decrease brain swelling, pressure, and further injury. When medications are inadequate to control pressure around the brain, an operation to remove part of the skull may be necessary.

Read more about malignant cerebral edema on the AANS website.


Hydrocephalus refers to a variety of conditions that are characterized by to much cerebrospinal fluiod in and around the brain. For example, when there is a blockage in the cerebrospinal fluid exiting the brain, the pressure around the brain can increase causing a variety of symptoms. Some treatments of hydrocephalus rely on neuro-endoscopy.

Read more about hydrocephalus on the AANS website.

Subdural hematoma

Subdural hematoma is a relatively common problem and refers to blood outside of the brain, specifically in the subdural space. Most often caused by trauma, this condition can lead to symptoms by exerting pressure on the brain causing seizures and strokes. At times the body is able to absorb this blood just as it would a bruise elsewhere in the body. However, if the subdural hematoma is large enough it may require surgical removal.

Read more about Subdural hematoma in this helpful document from the University of Michigan.


Concussion refers to a traumatic injury to the brain that can occur without any abnormalities on brain imaging (CT, MRI). This condition is commonly associated with loss of consciousness and forgetfulness about the traumatic event. Patients with concussion commonly describe a variety of cognitive and emotional symptoms in the subsequent weeks and months, including anxiety, poor memory, irritability, difficulty concentrating, headaches. Concussion is generally treated by primary care doctors, neurologists, and neuropsychologists.

Read more about concussion on the AANS website.